The People’s Republic of China is the world’s second largest economy, which is gradually changing its labor-intensive economic model to innovation-driven one. Since the R&D&I area is crucial to change the economic model it will be highlighted in the 13. Five-Year Plan, the current development strategy of China to 2020. In 2015, China’s GDP proportional R&D&I expense amounted to 2.09%; in 2020 it aims to reach 2.5%.
The country’s main R&D&I policy pillars are: the National Outline for Medium- and Long-term Science and Technology Development Program (2006-2020); Five-year Science and Technology Development Plan; Internet+ strategy and the “Made in China 2025” roadmap. The mentioned documents are the base for the development directions for government organizations both at central and regional levels, and also for its institutional activities fixed in annual work plans.
In connection with the national S&T strategy priority research areas are: new energy, new materials, environmental protection and modern agricultural technologies.
Eight key central governmental organizations are working on S&T field:
- Development and Reform Committee of the State Council (strategy-planning, coordination among governmental organs);
- Ministry of Science and Technology (national programme on research infrastructure);
- Ministry of Education (research activity in the higher education; PhD/postdoc fellowships) ;
- Chinese Academy of Sciences (research programmes, individual fellowships);
- Chinese Academy of Engineering Sciences (research programmes, individual fellowships);
- National Natural Science Foundation (strategical research programmes, individual fellowships);
- Ministry of Industry and Information (national ITC programmes), and
- Ministry of Agriculture (programmes on modern agricultural technologies).
In 2015 the proportion of overall graduates emerging from science and engineering disciplines was 1.5 million. As part of the R&D&I structures the Chinese higher education system consisted over 2,529 regular colleges and universities, and 10,632 research institutes. Besides the big infrastructure projects of key technologies the basic research will be emphasized in the 13. Five-Year Plan.
Currently the Ministry of Science and Technology of People’s Republic of China has S&T cooperation agreements with 157 countries, of which 110 bilateral one. The Hungarian-Chinese Cooperation Agreement on Science and Technology is one of the mentioned bilateral ones. Interestingly, while in the relations with the European Union political nature dominates, the cooperation with the memberstates is mainly project-based. However nowadays, the EU-China S&T relation also shifts towards thematic cooperation on the field of food sciences, agriculture, biotechnology, sustainable urbanization, aerospace, and information technologies.
 See for details EU-China Strategic Cooperation Roadmap 2020.